With vacuum cleaners, the main thrust is suction. They use an air pump to create a vacuum inside the pipe that sucks in surrounding air and any dirt and dust that comes with it. The internal structure of a vacuum cleaner is very simple, although it looks more complicated from the outside. It is made up of five essential components.
First is the intake embrasure. The port for the intake needs to be narrow to efficiently handle dust particles. As the speed of commercial vacuum cleaner is fixed, the volume of air passing through it over a certain amount of time also remains constant.
Regardless of the size of the intake embrasure, the number of particles that are sucked into the machine remains the same, but, if the port is made smaller, the air particles will move faster and the speed will increase as the pressure decreases. The decrease in pressure leads to a greater suction force at the opening of the intake embrasure and this enables the machine to suck up heavier particles.
Next is the exhaust embrasure. This is where dirty and dusty air enters the vacuum cleaner and is emptied into the bag or collection container.
The electric motor uses a magnet to create motion in the machine. With magnets, opposite poles attract and like poles repel. Inside your vacuum motor the forces of attraction and repulsion create a rotational motion.
Every vacuum contains a rotating fan. This fan creates a stream of moving air that moves through the intake port and goes out of the exhaust embrasure. The air particles, when they move, create a frictional force between the dust particles and the air particles, hence, if the friction is strong enough and the dust particles are light, the moving air carries them away.
Once the dirt and dust has been sucked inside, it accumulates in a bag or collection container. Vacuum bags are porous so they let air particles pass through, but retain the dust particles. These bags act as air filters. They are made of porous materials like cotton or paper. Bagless machines use a filter.
When the motor is supplied with electricity it causes the fan to rotate and force air toward the exhaust port. The air density increases in front of the fan and decreases behind the fan. The drop in pressure creates the suction that is needed to pull in the surrounding air, along with the dust and dirt particles it carries. Overall, it is a simple and effective process.